Art Glossary

Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be slight, partial, or complete. Both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract.

Materials that are specifically designed for an extended lifespan and do not discolor or otherwise deteriorate over time such as watercolor paper. Archival prints offered and framed through LemonJuice Ltd. are preservation framed, to maintain an extended lifespan and value of the print. See also “Substrates” below.

The ratio of an image’s horizontal to vertical dimensions. . For example, an image that is 3” wide and 2” high has an aspect ratio of 3:2.

A bitmap is an image made up of dots called pixels (shortform of “picture elements”). The image consists of rows of pixels.

The time period a print maintains its original coloring (rated by the Wilhelm Institute in years).

The adjustment of the image color to compensate for deficiencies in the scanner or other output devices. The goal is to ensure that the color in the final print mimics the original color as close as possible.

Image compression is the process of reducing the size of a digital graphics file, in bytes, to an acceptable level without degrading the quality of the image. The reduction in file size reduces the time required for images to be sent over the Internet or downloaded from web pages. It also allows more images to be stored on a given amount of disk or memory space.

Contemporary art is art produced at the present period in time. Contemporary art includes, and develops from, Postmodern art, which is itself a successor to Modern art. In vernacular English, “modern” and “contemporary” are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the terms “modern art” and “contemporary art” by non-specialists.

A cookie is a small piece of textual information, sent to your browser from the website or web server you are visiting.  Cookies are used to memorize information so that the web visitor does not have to re-input the same information the next time he or she visits a web site, and so that the web experience can be tailored to a specific visitor’s needs. If a site you visit uses cookies, that site’s web server queries your browser for permission to pass a cookie to your browser’s directory. The web server issuing the cookie is the only server that can read that particular cookie. Cookies cannot retrieve information from your hard drive or profile your system.

Copyright laws are designed to protect the owner or creator of an image or other work from having another person create unauthorized copies. As a general guideline for LemonJuice Ltd. members, you can only contribute original work that you have created yourself, utilizing original elements. This means that you cannot use images of celebrities, or of corporate products, nor images, text or design that you have copied from a website or elsewhere unless you have the written permission of the owner. You cannot create a “new” image using elements from images that other people have created. Nor can you contribute a quote or a slogan that is substantially the same as something already written by someone else.

Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form; instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.

“Dots per Inch”, refers to the number of dots of color that are displayed or printed for every inch of the digital image. In general, a higher number of dots per inch will yield a higher quality image.
We recommend to have a DPI larger than 180, preferably 300 resulting in a file size of at least 1 MB.

Digital representations or images are electronic snapshots taken of a scene or scanned from documents, such as printed texts, photographs, and artwork. From a more technical viewpoint, the digital image is sampled and mapped as a grid of dots or picture elements (pixels). Each pixel is assigned a tonal value (black, white, shades of gray or color), which is represented in binary code (zeros and ones). The binary digits (“bits”) for each pixel are stored in a sequence by a computer and often reduced to a mathematical representation (compressed). The bits are then interpreted and read by the computer to produce an analog version for display or printing.

See Tempera.

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express the meaning of emotional experience rather than physical reality.

LemonJuice Ltd. works with a reputable and experienced printing partner to create high-quality fine-art giclée prints.

Reproductions offered through Fine-Art Print are printed on Premium Photographic Paper or Premium Watercolor Paper and rated by Wilhelm Imaging Research for 80 – 135 years of Color Constancy, respectively.

Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology, youth and violence and objects such as the car, the aeroplane and the industrial city. It was largely an Italian phenomenon, though there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere.

These are reproductions printed by a completely digital process. “Giclée” is a French word for “ink spray.”

To create a Giclée, an original scan is digitally separated into component colors. The print is then made by a Giclée printer that ‘sprays’ microscopic droplets of ink onto the paper at a very high resolution. These machines can print using any color, and the resulting product is extremely color accurate to the original, and has great color saturation. The paper used for these prints is always an acid-free, watercolor paper for high absorbency.

An illustration is a visualization or a depiction of a subject made by an artist, such as a drawing, sketch, painting, photograph, or other kind of imageof things seen, remembered or imagined, using a graphical representation. The word comes from the latin word illustra’tio, illu’stro meaning enlighten, irradiate. Printing is the current process for reproducing illustrations, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. Illustrations can be artistic images illustrating for example a text, poem, fashion, magazines, stamps or a book and very often illustrations were made for children’s books. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information by providing a visual representation of something described in the text. Illustrations can be executed in different techniques, like watercolor, gouache, ink, oil, charcoal chalk or woodcut.

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists whose independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion ofmovement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

The method of submission of an image that will be used to reproduce that image (i.e., slide, digital file, or negative).

JPEG image format (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is the predominant format used by digital cameras. Files saved in JPEG format have file names that end with the extension “.jpg.”  Even professional cameras have a JPEG mode and it has become the de facto image format for electronic storage of photographic images.

The reason for this is JPEG’s ability to reduce an image file size by 8 or 10 to 1 without any degradation in image quality (to the human eye at normal viewing magnification). JPEG is supported by most browsers and is simple to use because it offers millions of colors, but does not require any manipulation of the color table.

A word that is entered into the search field or search “window” of an Internet search engine to search the web for pages or sites about or including the keyword and information related to it.

The user’s experience in viewing images over the web is affected by the speed with which the selected image appears on the user’s monitor. The user’s internet connection speed and the size of the digital image file are the two most important factors in determining how fast an image will appear.

To comply with the requirement that the image be as small as possible and still faithfully represent the original, almost all digital images of artwork are compressed in size for transmission and display over the web. Data compression techniques in which some amount of data is lost are referred to as “lossy”. Lossy compression technologies attempt to eliminate redundant or unnecessary information in order to reduce the image file size.The JPEG format uses a lossy compression technique.

Lyrical abstraction is either of two related but distinct trends in Post-war Modernist painting:

European Abstraction Lyrique – from 1947, considered as a component of Tachisme.
American Lyrical Abstraction a movement described by Larry Aldrich in 1969.
A third definition is the usage as a descriptive term. It is a descriptive term characterizing a type of abstract painting related to Abstract Expressionism; in use since the 1940s.

The section of the website where you create and manage your member account. The gallery management area is an important part of the member interface. The member interface allows you to upload JPEG image files, input artwork and description data, input artist background information and set up Print-on-Demand reproductions of your artwork.

In the visual arts minimalism is a style that uses pared-down design elements.

To prove that a photographer or other artist has the legal right to reproduce an image or likeness of a person or other being in print, the photographer obtains a model release form from or on behalf of that person. The model release form is a written document authorizing a photographer to use one’s image or likeness in print. A Model Release must contain the following minimum data elements:

First and last name of the subject (or subject’s parent, guardian or agent), printed
Signature of the subject (or subject’s parent, guardian or agent), dated
Contact information of the subject (or subject’s parent, guardian or agent), including mailing address and either phone number or e-mail address
Clear indication of the ‘approved purpose’ of the release  (which should include public display and reproduction, sale and distribution of the artwork)

Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped Modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by the horror of World War I. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.

There is no limit on how many copies of an Open Edition printing of an artwork may be made. Most artwork sold through LemonJuice Ltd. is currently sold as Limited Editions.

A unique work created by an artist.

Because of the reproducible nature of photographs and digital images, there is no true original. It is recognized that the term “original” in that context refers to the photographic negative, the photographer’s first and only developed print, or the original data file.

The printed reproduction of a submitted digital file or input.

The term outsider art was coined as an English synonym for art brut (French for “raw art” or “rough art”), by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by those on the outside of the established art scene, such as psychiatric hospital patients and children. The English term “outsider art” is often applied more broadly, to include certain self-taught or naïve art makers who were never institutionalized.

A negative is piece of photographic film showing an image with black and white tones reversed, used to make prints.

A clear film color photographic image that is viewed and reproduced with light.

Another way of referring to Giclée prints. Giclée prints are produced using fine pigment inks on premium watercolor paper, with a high archival quality and traditional matte finish that is designed for long-term, fade-resistant reproductions. Finished prints are rated by Wilhelm Imaging Research with a minimum of 80 years Color Constancy.

A “pixel” is the shortform of “picture element”. The dimensions of an image are expressed as horizontal and vertical measurements in pixels. A digital camera will also have pixel dimensions, expressed as the number of pixels horizontally and vertically that define its resolution (e.g., 2,048 by 3,072).

Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950’s in Britain and in the late 1950’s in the United States.Pop art presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular culture such as advertising and news.

Make affordable posters of your originals available for sale on LemonJuice Ltd. without additional set-up costs, and in one easy online process!  You use the same JPEG files you have displayed in your online gallery. These posters are printed using state-of-the-art wide-format inkjet printers, using dye-based inks to produce vibrant and long-lasting representations of your work that are suitable for framing or for unframed display.  Posters are printed on ‘satin’ photo paper, with a glossy finish for small prints and a matte finish for larger prints.

Fine-art prints from your original are produced using quality dyes on premium archival photographic paper, for a finished print that is rated by Wilhelm Imaging Research with a minimum of 80 years Color Constancy.

A process that enables you to make your Original artwork in the form of a digital file available for printing and sale as fine-art reproductions and affordable wall posters. These prints are created from the digital file as they are ordered by a customer. With our easy-to-use ordering process and state-of-the-art printing equipment, participating in our PoD program is an affordable way for you to turn your original art into high-quality reproductions, without an excessive and expensive investment in time, money or inventory. See Fine Art Print-on-Demand and Poster Print-on-Demand for further information.

Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

The face of a person in a photograph is considered to be a “recognizable face” if the likeness is apparent enough that the individual represented in a photographic image could be easily identified by the artwork (i.e., a photograph of a person’s face rather than a person’s profile). If a face is recognizable, you must obtain a Model Release from the subject before you can present the image on the LemonJuice website.

The number of pixels per square inch on a computer-generated display, also called PPI, and an indication of digital image quality. The higher the resolution, the better the image will look. See also “DPI”.

The final cost paid by the customer, after valid promotional discounts have been applied, popularly called Selling Price.

A transparency (often a positive image in color) mounted between glass frames or in a frame of cardboard or other material so that it may be inserted into a projector.

A still life (plural still lives) is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural (food, flowers, dead animals, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on).

The type of material on which a work is produced (i.e., canvas, watercolor paper, photographic paper, Strathmore paper, etc).

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality.” Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself. Surrealism developed largely out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris.

A descriptive word that is used to describe a particular artwork, and that permits that artwork to be found by a visitor or buyer who enters that tag as a search term.

Tempera also known as Egg Tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble bindermedium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting.

Letters, words, designs, logos and combinations of the foregoing can be trademarks when used with the sale and distribution of goods and/or services. Trademarks identify and distinguish one seller’s good and/or services from the goods and/or services of others. The test for infringement of a trademark is whether a person’s use of a designation creates a likelihood of confusion. You cannot contribute artwork that is likely to cause confusion with someone else’s trademark. Release forms are needed if a trademark is prominently displayed in the image.

A trademark licensing agreement is required when using an image of a trademark or a trademarked product in print. It is a written document authorizing an artist or photographer to use another’s trademark or trademarked product in print. A trademark licensing agreement must contain the following minimum elements:

Name of the trademark owner, printed
Signature of the trademark owner, dated
Contact information of the trademark owner, including mailing address and either phone number or e-mail address
Clear indication of the ‘approved purpose’ of the release (which should include public display and reproduction, sale and distribution of the artwork )

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) is a “lossless” image format (see “Lossy Compression” above)—i.e., one that does not eliminate information in the compression process. While the TIFF format is not widely used for photographic images stored on a digital camera storage card (primarily because it creates very large files when compared to other common formats such as JPEG), it is a good format for doing wide-format reproductions of Artwork images.

Usually refers to antique, i.e., an old collectable item. It is collected or desirable because of its age, beauty, rarity, condition, utility, personal emotional connection, and/or other unique features. It is an object that represents a previous era or time period in human society.

A distinguishing mark “impressed upon” the images of original works, which make it virtually impossible to print a good quality reproduction of the work directly from the website. Watermarks protect the artist from unauthorized use of their copyrighted images.

Water miscible oil paint (also called “water soluble” or “water mixable”) is a modern variety of oil paint engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, thus making it possible to avoid using chemicals such as turpentine, whose fumes may be harmful if inhaled. Water miscible oil paint can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.